There is a fantastic book called Science for All Americans that talks about what to teach children. I recommend buying the print version and adding your own notes. However it is also online and can be used for free in your efforts to teach your child. The scope of this work may seem unconnected to leadership, but I would argue that science skills are good for leaders too. My formal training was in Engineering and I always enjoyed science. This book is great for helping to plan your approach. They really thought it through well.
The same group also publishes another book called Benchmarks that is also available free online.
I linked to the Habits of Mind section directly because it most directly links to leadership. You can explore the rest of it on your own.
In describing habits of mind as values and attitudes, they state:
Throughout history, people have concerned themselves with the transmission of shared values, attitudes, and skills from one generation to the next. All three were taught long before formal schooling was invented. Even today, it is evident that family, religion, peers, books, news and entertainment media, and general life experiences are the chief influences in shaping people’s views of knowledge, learning, and other aspects of life. Science, mathematics, and technology—in the context of schooling—can also play a key role in the process, for they are built upon a distinctive set of values, they reflect and respond to the values of society generally, and they are increasingly influential in shaping shared cultural values. Thus, to the degree that schooling concerns itself with values and attitudes—a matter of great sensitivity in a society that prizes cultural diversity and individuality and is wary of ideology—it must take scientific values and attitudes into account when preparing young people for life beyond school.
Similarly, there are certain thinking skills associated with science, mathematics, and technology…and I would add leadership that young people need to develop during their school years. These are mostly, but not exclusively, mathematical and logical skills that are essential tools for both formal and informal learning and for a lifetime of participation in society as a whole.
Taken together, these values, attitudes, and skills can be thought of as habits of mind because they all relate directly to a person’s outlook on knowledge and learning and ways of thinking and acting.
Then this excellent site goes on to list great ends that we should teach to the children by age ranges typically associated with schools in the USA.